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更新时间:2004/12/17

主讲人:胥国红
北京航空航天大学


1. 动词的时态和语态
1.1 动词的时态和语态一览表
时态语态 一般现在时  一般过去时    一般将来时
主动被动 doare done didwere done will dowill be done
 现在进行时  过去进行时  将来进行时
主动被动  are doingare being done were doingwere being done will be doing
 现在完成时  过去完成时  将来完成时
主动 被动 have donehave been done had donehad been done will have donewill have been done
 现在完成进行时 
主动 被动 have been doing  

1.2 动词主要时态的意义及运用
1) 现在完成时,过去完成时和将来完成时
英语提示语:up to now, so far, for three years, since 1995, over past ten years, by the end of this week, by the year of 1995 
汉语提示语:已经,早已,了
e.g. We haven’t met each other since last year.
  By the end of this week, we’ll have finished the task.
2) 现在完成进行时
从过去一直持续到现在,没有间断。
汉语提示语:一直
e.g. The water has been running the whole night. 
3) 过去完成时
a) said, reported, thought 等引导的间接引语中。
e.g. He missed the train. He said he had missed the train.
b) hardly…when, no sooner… than
e.g. No sooner had he got up than he received the call.
c) 与过去事实相反的虚拟语气的条件状语从句中
e.g. If I had tried harder, I would have won.
 I wish I had done better in the exam. 

历年考题中的动词时态和语态
1. Much of the carbon in the earth ___ (come) from things that once lived.
2. In the past two decades, research ___ (expand) our knowledge about sleep and dream.
3. Some proverbs ___ (be) in the language for 1,000 years, for example, A friend in need is a friend indeed.
4. ___ (stand) at the gate was a young man in green coat.
5. In 1991, after the Gulf War, Bush’s approved rating reached 91 percent, the highest level recorded since polling ___ (begin) in the 19302.
6. Seeing violence on television or reading about it in the newspapers every day ___ (make) us tolerate crime more than we should.
7. So far, Irving ___ (live) in New York City for ten years.  
8. The patient ___ (send) to another hospital before we got there.
9. The second half of the nineteenth century ___ (witness) the first extended translation into English of the writings of Eliphas Levi.
10. All the worries they might have felt for him ___ (drive) off by the sight of his cheerful face.

Key:
1. comes  一般现在时,主语为不可数名词,谓语用单数
2. has expanded   现在完成时 
3. has been  现在完成时
4. Standing  过去进行时的倒装形式
5. began  一般过去时
6. makes  一般现在时,动名词做主语,谓语用单数
7. has been living  现在完成进行时
8. had been sent  过去完成时的被动形式
9. witnessed   一般过去时
10. were driven   一般过去时的被动

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